- Floudas, C A, Pardalos, P M, Adjiman, C S, Esposito, W R, Gumus, Z H, Harding, S T, Klepeis, J L, Meyer, C A, and Schweiger, C A, Handbook of Test Problems in Local and Global Optimization. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999.
- Ben-Sadd, S, An Algorithm for a Class of Nonlinear Nonconvex Optimization Problems. PhD thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, 1989.
- Original source: Global Model of Chapter 3 ex3.1.4.gms from Floudas e.a. Test Problems
Best known point: p1 with value -4.0000